In this study, we adopted the solution combustion method to synthesize magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) using urea as the fuel. Various techniques including TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis DRS, and EDS were employed to characterize the synthesized MgFe2O4 nanoparticles. The XRD analysis revealed that single-phase MgFe2O4 was formed at a calcination temperature of at 500–600°C for 3 hours in the absence of an intermediate phase. TEM analysis also revealed the formation of monodisperse magnesium ferrite nanoparticles, averaged at 30 nm in size. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized MgFe2O4 nanoparticles against methylene blue dye under visible light was investigated, showing the efficiency of % after 240 minutes of light irradiation with the presence of H2O2.
Ferrite nanoparticles, MFe2O4 where M is any divalent metal ions such as Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Fe, Cu, etc, find wide applications in several fields . Depending on the area of application, ferrite nanoparticles need to exhibit distinct characteristics. For example, in order to be suitable as an absorbent for ination of wastewater, ferrites should have exceptional chemical reactivity, adsorption capacity, and most importantly, reasonable Ms value, which is critical for magnetic recovery of the adsorbent from the aqueous solution . The choice of synthesis method should also be considered when it comes to exploring the mechanism of formation of ferrite properties. To be specific, the distribution of metallic ions among crystallographic lattice sites, which defines the characteristics of the materials, largely depends on the synthesis method. This effectively makes the method selection crucial when it comes to adapting the materials to the needs of application [1, 3, 4].
A Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnesium Ferrite Nanoparticles via the Solution Combustion Method
Usually, the maximum band gap energy of ferrites is approximately 2 eV, allowing the materials to effectively absorb visible light . Furthermore, advantageous magnetic properties also offer ferrites useful applications . Both forms of ferrites, in individual photocatalysts or in combination with others, are accentuated in literature for being separable and reusable from the reaction mixture [5, 7]. One of the typical uses of ferrites is as visible light photocatalysts for the degradation of pollutants in water and wastewater [7–10]. This capability of ferrite catalysts is possible due to effective utilization of light energy, which in turn allows formation of
pairs on the photocatalytic surface. The pairs, owing to their susceptibility to oxidation and reduction, play an important role in formation of reactive oxygen species, such as
, consequently promoting the decomposition of pollutants. Previous studies also suggested the addition of oxidants such as H2O2 into the reaction to create a Fenton-type system [6, 8, 11, 12] aiding the degradation through formation of hydroxyl radicals.
Among magnetic ferrites, magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) is a typical inverse spinel, where Fe 3+ ions are located in the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites and Mg 2+ ions are located in octahedral sites only . The application of magnesium ferrite is diverse ranging from that in high-density recording media to that in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis [7, 15–17], adsorption [18–20], anode material , cancer cure , and sensors . In addition, the material is also a soft magnetic n-type semiconducting materials with a narrow band gap (1.9 eV) .
Methods devised for preparation of magnesium ferrite nanocrystallites included the coprecipitation method [19, 25–28], sol-gel method [20, 29], combustion method [30, 31], hydrothermal method , thermal decomposition method , and solvothermal method . Among the methods used to synthesize ferrite nanoparticles, the solution combustion synthesis is favored for its simplicity, short reaction time, and low annealing temperature . These advantages have made resulting ferrites to have fine particle size, reduced impurities, and improved physical properties . In the combustion reaction, the fuels play the role of forming complexes with metal cations . Frequently used fuels in previous studies included glycine, urea https://loansolution.com/installment-loans-ny/, citric acid, and EDTA (ethylene diammin tetraacetic acid). In this work, MgFe2O4 nanoparticles are prepared by the solution combustion method with urea as fuel. The structural, chemical composition, thermal, morphology, and photocatalytic activity of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles are investigated.